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working together to mitigate the unprecedented impact of Covid19.

We know there is an undeniable impact to your business, your budget, and your career goals.  Many of you are now working from home.
Your friends at IEA stand with you in these challenging times with solutions that can help you remain focused on your future even when
the present seems uncharted.

IEA’s online and on-demand certificate and designation programs give you access to courses in the safest environment of your choice.
You can still work on your future while we all do our bit to sustain responsible social distancing.

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At this time we extend our best wishes to all of our customers.  Be safe and be well.

Medical Marijuana, Proposal in California to Address Workplace Protection

Prop 64 says YES to Marijuana But Doesn’t Address Workplace

In 2016 voters in California legalized the use of marijuana by passing proposition 64. This legislation allowed for use of the drug, while
at the same time preserving the right of employers to maintain a drug-fee working environment, and the ability to terminate employees
who tested positive for drug use. This includes those who use marijuana for medicinal purposes. However, according to Tamar Todd, who
lectures on marijuana at U.C. Berkeley, and is Vice Chair of the California Cannabis Advisory Committee,  “People can still be drug tested
and disciplined based on a positive result even if they are using in compliance with state law, not at work, and not impaired at work.”

Protecting Medical Use and Addressing Workplace Issues

Some argue that use of medical marijuana should be viewed in the same light as any other prescription medication, and that medicinal
users should not face discrimination in hiring or in termination practices. In response to these concerns, Assemblyman Rob Bonta
(D-Alameda), proposes a bill that would require employers to make accommodations for workers using medical marijuana. The new
bill would provide protections for job applicants and employees in non-safety sensitive positions. Airline pilots, truck drivers, and
police offices would be exempt as would employers with federal contractors which are required by law to be drug free environments.

Marijuana Use and Safety in the Workplace

Opponents of the bill argue that pubic safety implications of marijuana use may still not yet be fully known or understood.
The Los Angeles Times reports that positive drug testing of employees in non-safety sensitive positions in California jumped from 2.3% in 2015,
(one year before marijuana was legalized in California) to 3.1% in 2018 and that in 2014 the rate of positive test results nationwide hit a 14
year high. The National Institute on Drug Abuse asserts that postal workers who tested positive for marijuana had 55%
more industrial
accidents, 85% more injuries, and 75% greater absenteeism compared to those who tested negatively.

Workers’ Compensation, To Pay or Not to Pay

According to a recent article published by Risk&Insurance, Marijuana impairment testing is also a factor that must be considered in
workers’ compensation. Injured workers using the drug may need to be tested for impairment before returning to work. Moreover,
as legalization of cannabis use becomes more expansive, the differences between state and federal regulations around products and
their use may lead to confusion for workers’ compensation payers. For now though, more states with legal access to medical marijuana
are ruling that workers compensation payers have to pay up for use of the drug.

16 States Provide Workplace Protection for Medical Marijuana. Could California Be Next,
by Courtney DuChene, Risk&Insurance, Feb 2020

Legal Marijuana use still costs people jobs. A new California bill takes on the issue, by Patrick McGreevy, Los Angeles Times, Feb 2020



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Soft Skills and Their Importance in Today’s Labor Market

Soft Skills Predict Career Success

According to a newly published article by David J. Deming for the National Bureau of Economic Research, there is strong evidence that
“soft skills” (also referred to as “non-cognitive” skills) are increasingly important indicators of success both at school and in adult life.
Deming references a 2017 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers that identifies that the top qualities sought in
new graduates are the ability to work in a team followed closely by written and verbal communication skills.

Soft Skill Occupations Grow as STEM Opportunities Slow

Deming points to evidence suggesting that cognitive skills (those emphasized as and measure by IQ tests) as a predictor of labor market
success has declined since 2000 while there has been a corresponding uptick in occupations that emphasize strong analytical and
interpersonal skills. These include occupations such as business support, finance, managers, nurses and physicians. Between 1980 and
2012, careers that focused on social skills grew by almost 12 percentage points of all U.S. jobs and were associated with
a more rapid wage growth
for the same occupations. In contrast employment and wages for high math low social skill occupations
such as STEM, grew more slowly. This is not to say that cognitive skills are not required – clearly they remain essential – but they are no
longer sufficient for obtaining a good, well-paying position. Candidates must bring social skills to the table as well.

Soft Skills – A Uniquely Human Skill-Set

What accounts for the continued importance of soft skills? The author points to a recent article by David Autor about the history of workplace
automation which argues that new technologies actually result in an increase in the importance of skills and tasks for which there is still
no suitable non-human substitute. Certainly machines are better than humans at performing routine tasks that follow explicit rules, but people
are much better at tasks that require flexibility, creativity, and judgment – qualities that don’t require an explicit understanding of rules. Examples
are the way in which people observe and intuitively interpret the behavior of other people which in turn informs their interaction with that
individual (like whether it’s o.k to tell or laugh at an off-color joke).  Automation simply can’t decode or duplicate human interaction,
team collaboration, and just plain understanding of people and their behavior.  A machine can answer a phone and direct a call, but it takes
the soft skills of a human to “read” the tone of the conversation, interpret the caller’s motivations, and respond in a uniquely personal manner.

This ability to observe and interpret behavior is also consequential in team behavior.  According to Deming, effective teamwork requires a
complex and context-dependent understanding of one’s team members and their likely responses to a wide range of scenarios. ”
For humans it’s intuitive but not likely to be codified by automation.

Soft Skills in Your Educational Objectives and Budget

The data presented in the article underpins the necessity for professional development that emphasizes the importance of soft skills as
an indicator of success in the labor market.  Human resource professionals, managers, supervisors and team leaders do well to
continue to ensure their training objectives and budget includes these important skills.  At IEA, we’ve listened to the needs of many of
our customers, particularly those responsible for hiring and training, who have identified soft skills as the area of development most
needed for on-boarding as well as on-going professional development.  We’ve responded by developing a series of Essential Soft Skills
training webinars, as well as on-site classroom training for interested companies.  To learn more about our program click here.


The Value of Soft Skills in the Labor Market
David J. Deming
The National Bureau of Economic Research